at 6:32 AM

Exclusion of certain topics from ITSM Syllabus for November,2012 Attempt & Onwards


Certain topics from ITSM syllabus have been excluded for the purpose of November,2012 attempt and onwards, relevant announcement regarding the same can be read on BOS portal


at 4:23 AM

How Banks make Money ?–A Quick Analysis

How Banks make money is something which comes to mind of many of us when we hear about their reported profits, come across their financial statements and when we watch an analyst on any business news channel talking about profit maneuvers and earning or growth possibilities of banking sector. To answer this question we must take a look on different type of “banks” in the market.
In market we can come across either Pure Retail Banks (For example; Dena Bank, Allahabad Bank, SBBJ etc.), Pure Investment Banks (For example; JP Morgan, Goldman Sachs etc) and a an intermediate category of banks which act as both Retail and Investment Banks (For example; Axis Bank, IDBI, HSBC, ICICI, Citi Bank, Deutsche Bank, Kotak Mahindra Bank Limited etc.).
So, in a nutshell, so far this article has led us to a conclusion that majorly, banking revenue and profit generating activities can be divided into two broad categories:
ca4all bank

Retail Banking –

Retail bank consists of activities which are generally coined to fulfill the financial needs and services required by a retail individual service consumer or small sized corporate entities. Major activities carried out by a bank in retail banking sphere of services are as follows:  
ü Organizing Loans & Mortgages for Retail Consumers

ü Maintaining Saving Accounts, Currents A/Cs etc

ü Maintaining FDs and other deposits etc

ü Furnishing Loans to Retail Consumers for their various needs

ü  Bank charges an interest rate (say X1) from all its clients to whom it lends money accompanied with other charges like service fees, accountant maintenance fees, paperwork charges etc. and pays at an interest rate (say X2)(of course X1>X2),  to all its clients who have deposited their money in the bank and hence, Retail Banks earn an interest margin(or Intt. Differential) on all of the above transactions plus pockets a fair amount of service charges. So, in a nutshell, tagline of Retail Banking is- Lend at high rates, Borrow at low rates and eat margin while doing both
Characteristics of Retail Banking: Low Risk, Solid Cash Flow Generating Sector (from bank’s perspective)

Investment Banking –
Investment Banking is one of the Chief Operations in modern banking, if you have heard of any major M&A activity recently, read about an upcoming IPO/FPO, or have seen a report on an upcoming business deal; you must consider that in one way or other, Investment Bank(s) are involved in these. Some of the Major Activities carried on by an Investment Bank are as follows:

ü  Proprietary Trading
§  Taking care of Bank’s Money at Hand
§  Using money with bank to make money
§  Taking Investment Decisions
§  Financial & Liquidity Management

ü  Market Making
§  Trade at several types of trading market to maintain flow in the market (let’s call it maintaining the demand-supply equilibrium on a micro level by banks for simplicity)
§  For understanding this feature of banking, we must understand that in a trading market, every prospective buyer of stuff needs a prospective seller who can sell him the requisite stuff as and when required and similarly a seller in a market needs a buyer already existing in the market, an investment bank monetizes this situation by acting as a seller or buyer at different times. Technically speaking, an investment bank carries a long or short position depending upon the type and need of the client and charges a “premium” or “margin” or “service charge” for doing the same

ü  Merger & Acquisitions
§  Investment Banks render services by the way of providing advice on Mergers
§  Every major prospective acquirer or absorber seeks the advice of Investment Banks to decide about the valuation of target, its growth prospective, market sentiment about the target etc
§  For such M&A advising and assistance bank charges advising fees which is known by various names, such fees can be fixed or may depend on the size of the deal

ü  Assisting Corporate Events
§  Assisting various corporate clients for corporate deals and other events including publicity events, brand management, service feedback procurement etc
§  Helping in issuance of Debt

ü  New Issues
§  Investment Bank also helps in issuance of New Equity (and even in issuance of further equity). In other words banks contribute in issuance of IPO/FPO
§  Investment Bank also acts as underwriter of shares and charges underwriting commission for the same

ü  Structured Products
§  Investment Banks assist in design and sales of various Financial Securities/Instruments or a group/combination of them
Characteristics of Investment Banking: High Risk, High Expected CF but proper financial management and employment of risk minimization tactics is required
at 6:39 AM

CARO 2003 Audit Notes in Hindi - कंपनी अंकेक्षक प्रतिवेदन आदेश - 2003

कंपनी अंकेक्षक प्रतिवेदन आदेश – 2003


गूगल डॉक्स पर पढने के लिए कृपया यहाँ क्लिक करें
at 1:11 AM

Membership of Company - A Handbook

Membership of Company - A HandBook CA4ALL

Download from Google Drive -
Or, enter in address bar:

Slideshare Link -
Click Here
Or, enter in address bar:
at 5:27 AM

RTP : IPCC November 2012–Download Links

at 4:16 AM

Definition Of Member as per Companies Act,1956

Definition of member — Section 41 Companies Act,1956

All the subscribers of the Memorandum of Association shall be deemed toCA4ALL Membership have agreed to become members of the company and on registration of a company shall be entered as members in the Register of members

Section 41 deals with definition of member which provide as under:—

  • The subscribers of the Memorandum of a company shall be deemed to have agreed to become members of the company, and on its registration, shall be entered as members in its register of members
  • Every other person who agrees in writing to become a member of a company and whose name is entered in its register of members, shall be a member of the company
  • Every person holding equity share capital of a company and whose name is entered as beneficial owner in the records of the depository shall be deemed to be a member of the concerned company
at 10:56 AM


Notification No. 1-CA(7)/145/2012 
on August 1, 2012,

The provisions relating to Direct Entry Scheme for Graduates/Post Graduates, etc., with prescribed percentage of marks, to the Chartered Accountancy Course have come into force from August 1, 2012.

at 12:26 PM

Total Quality Management (TQM)

Total Quality Management (TQM) is a people focused management system that aims at continual increase in customer satisfaction at continually lower real cost.

TQM is total system approach, not a separate area or program. TQM stresses continual change in learning and adaptation as keys to organizational success.

Pioneers in field of TQM argued that a more effective management philosophy might focus on actions to prevent a defective products from ever being created, rather that simply screening it out.

W. Edwards Deming is regarded by many as Father of TQM

TQM & Traditional management practices -

  • Strategic planning and management
  • Changing relationships with customers and suppliers
  • Organizational Structure
  • Motivation & Job design
  • Organizational Change
  • Teamwork
at 1:04 AM

Bullwhip/Whiplash Effect & The Factors Contributing to Bullwhip Effect

A Phenomenon in forecast driven distribution channels/ A problem in forecast driven supply chains.

In periods of rising demand, down stream participants will increase their orders. In periods of falling demand, orders will fall or stop in order to reduce inventory.

The effect is that; variations are amplified the farther one gets from the end-consumers.

Factors Contributing To Bullwhip Effect -

at 11:43 AM

CA Final May 2012 Question Papers Group 1



Paper 1: Financial Reporting


Paper 2: Strategic Financial Management


Paper 3: Advanced Auditing & Professional Ethics


Paper 4: Corporate & Allied Laws


at 11:23 AM

In News : 300 candidates clear CA Final after Retotaling

Check this news by following this link (Original Article on Times Of India)

Courtsey :

at 9:50 AM

Solutions: IPCC May 2012 Model Test Papers Series 2 Group 2

Group 2

Paper 5: Advanced Accounting



Paper 6: Auditing & Assurance



Paper 7: Information Technology & Strategic Management


at 9:25 AM

IPCC May 2012 Model Test Papers Series 2 Group 2


Paper 5: Advanced Accounting
Download Here
Paper 6: Auditing & Assurance
Download Here
Paper 7: Information Technology & Strategic Management
Download Here


For Solutions Click


at 9:53 AM

A Lesson of Faith by Einstein - Motivation & Perception

Do your part and leave everything else to GOD

|| I felt that I must share this with all of you, this piece of conversation is both; Mind Provoking & Motivating ||

Professor : You are a Believer of God, aren’t you, son ?

Student : Yes, sir.

Professor: So, you believe in GOD ?

Student : Absolutely, sir.

Professor : Is GOD good ?

Student : Sure.

Professor: Is GOD all powerful ?

Student : Yes.

Professor: My brother died of cancer even though he prayed to GOD to heal him. Most of us would attempt to help others who are ill. But GOD didn’t. How is this GOD good then? Hmm?

(Student was silent)

Professor: You can’t answer, can you ? Let’s start again, young fella. Is GOD good?

Student : Yes.

at 4:35 AM

Solutions: IPCC May 2012, Model Test Papers Series 1

Paper 1: Accounting
Download Here

Paper 2: Law, Ethics & Communication
Download Here

Paper 3: Costing & Financial Management
Download Here

Paper 4: Taxation
Download Here

Paper 5: Advanced Accounting
Download Here

Paper 6: Auditing & Assurance
Download Here

Paper 7: Information Technology & Strategic Management
Download Here

at 3:57 AM

IPCC May 12 Model Test Papers Series 1


Paper 1: Accounting
Download Here

Paper 2: Law, Ethics & Communication
Download Here

Paper 3: Cost Accounting & Financial Management
Download Here

Paper 4: Taxation
Download Here



Paper 5: Advanced Accounting
Download Here

Paper 6: Auditing & Assurance
Download Here

Paper 7: Information Technology & Strategic Management
Download Here

at 7:41 PM

IPCC Revision Test Papers(RTP) May 2012

Group 1
Paper 1 : Accounting

Paper 2 : Business Laws, Ethics & Communication 

Paper 3 : Cost Accounting & Financial Management 

Paper 4 : Taxation

Group 2
Paper 5 : Advanced Accounting

Paper 6 : Auditing & Assurance

Paper 7 : Information Technology & Strategic Management Click Here
Note: All of the above files are stored at and are property of 
at 4:46 PM

Assessment of HUF after partition as per Section 171

HUF will be assessed as HUF till partition is admitted by ITO
  • When at assessment, it is said by any member that HUF has been partitioned wholly or partially; Assessing Officer may inquire by giving notice to all members
  • On completion of inquiry by assessing officer, AO shall record the findings as to whether there has been whole or partial partition and if there has been such partition; the date on which it has taken place
  • Where a partial partition has taken place after 31st December, 1978, no claim that such partial partition has taken shall be inquired into and no findings shall be recorded. Such family shall continue to be liable to be assessed as if no such partition has taken place. It shall be assessed as HUF
  • Where a finding of total/partial partition has been recorded by the AO and partition took place during the previous year, the total income of the family in respect of the period upto the date of such partition shall be assessed as if
at 9:02 AM

Funny MEME : TAX Keeps Changing

Rock IPCC Tax

at 9:41 AM

Incomes not treated as those of HUF & deductions available from GTI to HUF

Incomes not treated as those of HUF
  • Income from property transferred to a member
  • Income from property transferred to the family
  • Income from personal business of a member
  • Incomes in case only one coparcener is there in Dayabhag School
  • Income earned by personal efforts of a member
  • Impartible estate
Deductions available to HUF from Gross Total Income -
at 7:27 AM

Conditions for being assessed as HUF

The following can be regarded as the two main conditions which are required to be complied with for being assessed as a Hindu Undivided Family(HUF) -

  1. There should be coparceners
  2. There should be any common property of the family

Here, “coparceners” refers to two or more individuals inheriting any property together, or in other words two or more people who are co-heirs, and have rights on the property that they inherit

at 2:50 AM

Hindu Undivided Family(HUF) - Meaning & Types

According to Hindu Law," A Hindu Undivided Family consists of all male persons lineally descended from a common ancestor (excluding such persons who have separated themselves from the joint family by partition of assets) and includes their wives & unmarried daughters, and also a stranger of HUF"

HUF is mainly governed by either of these two schools of law -

  1. Mitakshra
  2. Dayabhag
It is to be noted that Dayabhag School is popular majorly in parts of Bengal only and Mitakshra stands as the most followed and exercised school of law for HUFs

These schools are majorly influenced by Hindu laws, traditions and practices.
Infact "Mitākṣarā" & "Dāyabhāga" are two legal treatise and commentaries of hindu law which deal with the law and procedure of inheritance. The central difference between the texts is based upon "when one becomes the owner of property". The Dāyabhāga does not give the sons a right to their father's ancestral property until after his death, unlike Mitākṣarā, which gives the sons the right to ancestral property upon their birth.

For further readings regarding these schools, one may refer to the articles- Mitākṣarā and Dāyabhāga on Wikipedia-The Free Encyclopedia
at 8:01 AM

Importance of Financial Statement Analysis

In a nutshell, the objective of financial analysis is a detailed cause and effect study of profitability and financial position. Financial Statement Analysis and Interpretation is vital due to following reasons -

  • Estimation of future earning capacity along with computation of present earning capacity
  • Inter Firm Comparison
  • Determination of short as well as long term solvency of the firm
  • Finding out overall and department-wise efficiency of firm on the basis of available financial information 
  • Assessing development in future by making forecasts and preparing budgets
  • Focusing the attention on general financial strength of the business enterprise

at 7:24 AM

Financial Analysis - Meaning and Objects

Financial Analysis - Meaning and Objects
Financial Statements Analysis is largely a study of Relationship among the various financial factors in a business as disclosed by a single set of statements and a study of trend of these factors as shown in a series of Statements 

The Objects of Financial Analysis are as follows :
  • To find out financial stability of a business concern
  • To assess the earning capacity of the firm
  • To estimate and evaluate the stock and fixed assets of the concern
  • To assess the firm's capacity and ability to repay short term and long term loans
  • To expect about the administrative efficiency of the management of the business concern
  • To estimate and examine the possibility of future growth of business
at 12:54 AM

Major highlights of Union Budget 2012-13


For highlights of Union Budget 2012-13
Download the enclosed document by clicking

at 8:51 AM

Major highlights of Railway Budget 2012-13


For highlights of Railway Budget 2012-13
including the
List of New Trains Announced in the Railway Budget 2012-13
Download the enclosed document by clicking

at 9:22 AM

Duties Of Directors

Duties of Directors may be categorized as -

  1. General Duties Of the Director

  2. Statutory Duties or the Duties of Directors under the Companies Act

Click on the above Links to see the Categorized duties in details

at 9:09 AM

Statutory Duties of Directors, i.e, Duties of Directors under the Companies Act

  • To act according to Articles
  • To ensure full and correct disclosure in Prospectus
  • To sign the Prospectus
  • To deliver prospectus to Registrar before issue
  • To keep deposited application money in a Scheduled Bank
  • To file the Return of Allotment
  • To deliver the Share Certificates
  • To pay the amount on shares taken
  • To sign and file Annual Return
  • To prepare and send copy of Statutory Report
  • To call Annual General Meeting
  • To lay accounts before AGM
at 8:52 AM

General Duties Of Directors

  • Duty of good faith
  • Duty of not delegating the Powers
  • Duty to act with due Care and Diligence
  • Duty to ensure proper usage of Money
  • Duty of not using Corporate Opportunities for Personal Interest
  • Duty of not paying Dividend out of Capital
at 7:30 AM

Some Exceptional Cases Where Income Is Assessed In The Same Previous Year In Which It Is Earned

  • Income from Shipping Business of Non-Residents (Section 172)

  • Assessment of a Person leaving India (Section 174)

  • Assessment of a Person likely to transfer property to avoid Tax (Section 175)

  • Assessment of Income of Discontinued Business (Section 176)

at 10:58 AM

PAN (Permanent Account Number) –What does it tell ?

PAN or Permanent Account Number is unique alphanumeric combination provided to entities which are identifiable under the Income Tax Act, 1961.The basic purpose of assigning this number to an entity is to track down substantial flow of monetary resource to and fro through such an entity via this number. Hence, assigning this number and making its role mandatory in major financial transactions ensures that evasion of tax is checked. PAN also serves as an important Id proof document. PAN; as acronym depicts is “Permanent” and is unique to every entity. PAN is allocated to variety of “entities”, viz. Company, Individuals, HUF, Trusts, Societies, AOPs etc. Structure of a PAN Card is given below:
Pan Card ca4all
Permanent Account Number is framed in such a manner that it reveals some details about its holder, suppose the PAN is AAAAA9999A; Then,

  • The fourth Letter in PAN tells us about the type of Assesse :
    • A – AOP
    • B – BOI
    • C – Company
    • F – Firm
    • G – Government
    • H – HUF
    • J – Artificial Judicial Person
    • L – Local Authority
    • P – Person
    • T – Trust
  • Fifth letter of Permanent Account Number is :
    • First character of Surname in case of Person
    • First character of name for assesses other than a Person(Individual)
  • Next four characters “9999” in this case, are numbers ranging from 0001 to 9999 

  • Last letter is “Alphabetic Check Digit”

Importance of PAN -

at 11:00 AM

Some Important SAP FI T-Codes (Financial Accounting)

Here are some important T-Codes of SAP including those related to General Ledger, Accounts Receivable, Accounts Payable, Assets and Bank -

SAP Codes 3

SAP Codes

SAP Codes 2

SAP Codes 4

SAP Codes 5


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